Land governance across borders or transnational land governance looks at rule making, standard setting and institution building across borders. Empirically, one can see a variety of patterns of regulatory governance emerging. The studies commissioned by IGAD in 2016 reviewing the of land governance systems in the IGAD Member States identified four transnational elements:
- state sovereignty over land.
- legal pluralism (customary and statutory).
- gender biases in access to land.
- land tenure insecurity and land conflicts.
In the IGAD Region, national organisation as a structuring principle of societal and political action can no longer serve as the orienting reference point. This creates the need for increased cooperation among nations. The IGAD region finds itself in a time where economic, social, and political developments in one country are increasingly affected by developments in others; and where opportunities and threats to people are no longer exclusively the responsibility of individual governments; The transnational sphere of land governance in the IGAD region is built neither upon nor beyond national institutional frameworks (full integration). Rather, the transnational sphere of land governance in the IGAD region transcends national borders while at the same time being entangled in historically contingent institutions and shaped by actors rooted in locally and nationally diverse contexts (Convergence). In dealing with cross border contexts in land governance, it is important to understand how transnational rules are implemented on the ground, how they are monitored by civil and public actors, and whether there is any learning from local experiences going on, or not.
IGAD through this project with the Swedish Embassy seeks to improve the performance of the land administration function in the IGAD region moving these closer to convergence and enabling the implementation of cross border initiatives that have a bearing on land. This project intends to deliver the following four result:
- Enhanced Capacity Development of IGAD Region on gender responsive land administration.
- Strengthened gender mainstreaming in land administration for the IGAD Region.
- Strengthened Capacity of the IGAD Region to implement land monitoring.
- Strengthened IGAD Land Governance project coordination and Implementation.
This project focuses on documenting best practices and generating mode or prototypes on land administration and management that can be replicated or scaled up. The model/prototype generated are mainstreamed by gender and will be used as learning ground and adaptation for use by the IGAD Member States with the expectation that there will be increased systemic change in how land governance functions at Member States level.
With the support of the Embassy of Sweden in Addis Ababa, IGAD Land Governance Unit is desirous of developing a manual for mainstreaming gender in the implementation of land governance reforms and practices.
Despite land reforms, conflicts between customary resource users, concessionaires (such palm oil and pulp and paper industries) and government agencies, as well as between central, provincial and district level governments have proceeded apace with negative consequences for the tenure security of local communities. Thus, a broad range of issues including overlapping rights regimes, conflicting claims, inconsistencies of legal mandates and practices among government agencies at different governance levels, capacities and motivations of reform implementing agencies and a lack of responsiveness to gender inequality continue to undermine tenure security.
In this regard, IGAD is desirous of developing technical guides to support land administration processes at country level using the Hackathon approach. Hackathon is an approach where a team or teams are put together to proffer solutions to a problem or an issue through generation of ideas aimed at building on or putting flesh around a particular solution to a problem. The approach is to be applied to activities at Initial framework level regarding the design of the geodetic reference framework and application of open-source tools in land administration and at strategic activity level regarding computerization of records and system, service provision including access to records.
There has been a challenge in maintaining and modernizing the geodetic reference frameworks or survey frameworks which form the foundation for creation of geospatial information and associated systems in the IGAD region. The geodetic reference frameworks which were established during the colonial times were heavily affected by loss of too many old stations. There have been efforts by countries like Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda, working independently to upgrade and modernize their geodetic reference frameworks using Global Navigation Satellite System techniques. Moreover, at the regional level no advantage is being taken to adopt a regional approach driven by the African Reference Framework that is promoted at the African Union level.
It has been observed that innovations in land reform and land administration adapted to current conditions are being attempted in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa. However, insufficient innovative tools exist to deliver affordable security of tenure and property rights at scale for most of Africa’s populations. It was proposed that new tools need to be developed, but these are not simple and easy to produce, or easily adapted to the diverse needs of various countries including those in the IGAD Region.
Given that not any one of the IGAD Member States has fully completed its computerization processes, with best practice being Uganda, which has a fully functional land administration system, Ethiopia following suite with a national rural land information system almost rolled out, and Kenya in the process of computerizing, it is important that the region develops model/prototypical guidelines that can aid in these processes, considering lessons learnt and best practices.
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE ASSIGNMENT
The main goal of the Technical Guides is to provide practical steps and approaches for establishment of geodetic reference frameworks and application of open-source tools in land administration. Geodetic reference frameworks form the spatial foundation for the creation of Geospatial Information in support of land administration and management including any Land-Information System (LIS). It is also hoped that with the use and improvement of open-source software and tools, cadastres can build local knowledge and contribute to the development of open-source projects.
The Technical Guides should further provide an overview of good practices that exist in the IGAD Region on establishment and maintenance of geodetic reference frameworks and application of open-source tools in land administration. The Technical Guides will seek to facilitate a more informed approach to the design, development, implementation, maintenance and monitoring of geodetic reference frameworks for the land sector and application of open-source tools in land administration that can be used by Governments at various levels, the Private Sector, and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).
Reliable, effective, and appropriate geodetic reference frameworks must be established, and must also be sustainable over a long period of time. Similarly, appropriate open-source tools in land administration should be developed and adopted for use in the IGAD Region. With the Technical Guides, IGAD envisages building capacities of local stakeholders to support establishment of geodetic reference frameworks and application of open-source tools in land administration that can be sustained over a long period of time at country level.
The main goal of the Practice Manual and Regional Guidelines is to provide practical steps and approaches for computerization of records and system and access to land information and records. It is hoped that computerization of records and system and improved access to land information and records will contribute to development of efficient and effective land administration systems.
The following deliverables are expected from the consulting firm
- Illustrated Technical Guide for The Design of The Geodetic Reference Framework
- Illustrated Technical Guide Development and Application of Open-Source Tools in Land Administration
- Practice Manual on Computerization of Records and System as Well As Archival Mainstreamed by Gender
- Regional Guidelines on Access to Land Information and Records
DURATION OF THE ASSIGNMENT
The Consultancy is for a total of 75 days spread over four months. The final products should be delivered to IGAD no later than 15th May 2022
QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE
The Consultant team of 2 is expected to have the following qualifications:
- The Lead Consultant should have expertise in Surveying, Geomatics and Land Information Systems.
- The Lead Consultant should have led the process of developing and documenting land information development processes in country. A minimum bachelor’s degree (or equivalent) in relevant area (surveying with 20 years relevant professional experience working in a government institution in the IGAD Region. A Master’s Degree or PhD in Geomatics, Land Administration, Land Surveying or GIS will be considered an asset.
- Minimum 10 years of relevant professional experience in developing land information systems; Record of participation in at least 2 assignments of similar nature.
- The second consultant should have a PhD in land management, gender studies, anthropology, development communication or law with 5 years of professional experience, or a master’s degree in a field relevant to the assignment, such as GIS, land management, development communication, Gender studies, anthropology, combined with at least 8 years professional experience; or A Bachelor’s degree in land management, land economics, law, gender studies, population studies with 10 years of professional experience.
- Knowledge of developing technical guides and manuals.
- Sound understanding of mainstreaming gender in land administration systems is an asset.
- Excellent communication, presentation, report writing and analytical skills.
- Mastery of oral and written English
- Very strong writing and analytical skills
IGAD Secretariat now invites eligible Consulting firms with the requisite experience to indicate their interest in providing the services. Interested firms must provide information indicating that they are qualified to perform the services, and submit CVs of the two consultants. For further information’s see attached the Terms of Reference (TOR).
- NO TECHINCAL OR FINANCIAL PROPOSALS REQUIRED IN THIS STAGE
HOW TO APPLY
The consultants should submit their Expression of Interest (EOI) to: firstname.lastname@example.org with Copies to email@example.com, not later than Wednesday 23rd February 2022 at 23:59 Hrs. EAT (GMT+3). Please note that only shortlisted firms will be contacted.
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