TERMS OF REFERENCE (ToR)
Borders in the IGAD region are porous and the Member states are less capable to effectively regulate and manage movement of goods and people across their borders. The borders are predominantly vulnerable to various forms of serious and organised crimes. These criminal activities are known to trigger or facilitate violent conflicts, corruption and facilitate other crimes. In some cases lack of effective border security can potentially create tensions among neighbouring states and at large among border communities. In this regard enhancing border security and management capacity of Member States is critically important to effectively prevent conflicts and the overall security of border communities and of MSs in general that would facilitate sustainable development in border communities who are often marginalised.
IGAD has been engaged in assessing the status border security and management in all international borders of its MSs focussing on the formal border stations. In 2014, IGAD has carried out regional comprehensive transnational organised crime threats and vulnerability assessments that identified the major organised criminal activities across the region. These assessments revealed that most of IGAD borders are poorly managed and controlled that makes them vulnerable to various forms of transnational security threats including but not limited to:
• Terrorism and violent extremism
• Violent conflicts
• Trafficking of humans, weapons, fauna and sauna and their products
• Illicit smuggling of migrants
• smuggling of goods (livestock, chat/qat, food items, textile/clothes, electronics, spare parts, hygienic products, household utensils and other commodity items) and their illicit trade
• Illegal cross-border cash flows (money transfer), and
• Other forms of serious criminal activities.
In this regard IGAD Security Sector Programme (IGAD SSP) has initiated a project to assess and identify the presence and scale, vulnerability factors or causes and riskscross border security threats and MSs' capabilities to address the threats in selected border areas. The project also intends to identify the criminal syndicates, their networks, areas and methods of operations. The findings of the study will inform national and regional legislators, policy makers and executive bodies to devise evidence based responses to prevent and counter the threats in a sustainable manner. This will also contribute to the overall security and development of border communities. For this purpose, IGAD SSP invites qualified researchers/consultants (individuals, firms, consortiums) to undertake this study as per this ToR.
2. Scope of activity:
For this initial project, the scope of the mapping of cross border security threats is limited to the Djibouti-Ethiopia-Somalia (Somaliland) Djibouti-Ethiopia-Somalia (Somaliland) borderland area that stretches from Dewele to Tog Wajaale. The study will cover both sides of the borderline (boundary) and shall not be limited to the formal border crossing stations but also the towns, villages, informal crossing areas and other places where there exists movement of people and goods across the border in any form. The study report is expected to provide knowledge and serve as a baseline and effective monitoring and evaluation tool in the fight against the threats. Further, the study report will enhance clarity on the known and unknown; provide a forward-looking and detail picture about the threats; foster knowledge-based decision-making and enhance cooperation and coordination of efforts among MSs and agencies
The overall objective of the project is comprehensively mapping the cross-border security threats and vulnerabilities in each selected borderland area and provide accurate, timely, complete, and relevant and value added information. The specific objectives include:
• Assess and identify the prevalence, scale, typologies, patterns and forms of cross-border security threats
• Identify and describe the causes and vulnerability/risk factors of the threatsincluding social, economic and market, political, environmental, technological and legal factors with a due regard to gender sensitivity
• Map the types and profiles of the criminal syndicates, by disaggregating data by gender and age (where possible), their networks, modus of operandi and areas of operations
• Assess Member States' border security, management and control capabilities and their limitations
• Analyse and evaluate the impacts of the threats to the borderland male and female community members in specific and the MSs in general,
• Forecast future trends of the threats and
• Outline policy recommendations and interventions for local, national and regional authorities to formulate gender sensitive/responsive policies/strategies and take measures to prevent and counter the threats
The expected results of the study include the following:
a) Inception report: The consultant(s) shall deliver a draft and final inception report based on preliminary research on secondary data, and consultants’ knowledge and experience. The report should outline understanding of the project, detail research methods, data collection tools (detail instruments and sources), data analysis, detail action plan, clear milestones (dates and results) and tentative final report outline. However, this shall not limit the consultant to include other points.
b) Draft final study report: A report presented in soft copy to IGAD SSP according to the schedule. Draft reports may need to be repeated to the satisfaction of IGAD SSP.
c) Final study report: A comprehensive report presented in soft copy fulfilling the minimum requirements stated in this ToR, the contract and the inception report
d) Written presentations: Brief and summarized presentations prepared for validation workshop
e) Monthly progress reports: Reports presented and submitted in electronic form that addresses the challenges, constraints/limitations, problems, accomplishments and achievements against the agreed plan, and way forward comments.
The study should be supported by both primary and secondary disaggregated data to be collected applying qualitative/quantitative (as may be relevant) data collection tools and methods including but not limited to review of relevant literatures, legal texts, reports and policy documents; and analysis of available statistical data on crimes committed and arrest and prosecutions made by the law enforcement agencies, seizure of illicit goods or proceeds of crimes and other sources. The Consultant is required to employ appropriate methods and tools of data collection, which shall be communicated to the IGAD SSP in writing for approval in the inception report. IGAD SSP suggests the use of standard assessment tools and methods including the applications of the analytical tools such as the UNOSC tools.
The method of study deployed shall be indicated in the report including the limitations and challenges faced, if any and how the Consultant overcomes them. The report is required to be well written in English language to the satisfaction of IGAD SSP and shall comply with academic standards including proper citations. The Consultant shall edit or improve the report as may be required by IGAD SSP. The study report shall be of sufficient detail and it is expected that it shall not be less than 10,000 and above 15,000 (12 font size, 1.5 line space) words excluding annexes, footnotes or other extra attachments. The report shall be submitted to the IGAD SSP in both soft and hard copy as may be necessary.
The study for each borderland area shall be completed within 8 weeks after the signing of the contract agreement and the first complete draft report shall be submitted to IGAD SSP on the first Monday of the 8th week.
The consultant/s shall have a masters degree or higher in criminology, sociology, policing, political science or LLM in law or other related field of studies with extensive experience of 10 years or above in security threats and risk assessment, criminal intelligence analysis or related fields, and research in crime related areas. Practical knowledge and experience in applying the UNODC SOCTA/TOCTA or other relevant standard tools/methodologies is an advantage. Consultants apply to cover an assessment in a specific member country or in a consortium or firm covering 2 or more states. Knowledge of French language is a requirement for the Djibouti border area study while proficiency or knowledge of local national/ language is an added value. Female consultants are highly encouraged to apply.
Deadline for application is 25st of August 2017 mid-night East African time