Position: Climate change and human mobility expert
Duration: Short term consultancy (40 working days)
Place: Djibouti IGAD Secretariat
1. Background and Context
The Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) in collaboration with Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammerbeit (GIZ), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD) would like to conduct an assessment on the nexus between climate change and human mobility in the IGAD region. The study is viewed as an initial step in implementing the recommendations of the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda under the overall guidance of the Platform on Disaster Displacement. The aim of the study is to contribute to efforts to strengthen the protection of people displaced across borders in the context of disasters, including those linked to the effects of climate variability and change, and to prevent or reduce disaster displacement risks. The study will be spearheaded by the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC) in close collaboration with the PDD and IOM, and is intended to inform the discussion of the 9th IGAD-Regional Consultative Process (RCP) to be held in July 2017.
Disasters linked to weather and climate extremes such as tropical cyclones, floods, droughts etc. displace millions of people each year in the world, with many of them unable to return home or opting to relocate. IPCC reports have shown that climate change will lead to new hazards, more intense and frequent extreme weather and climate events. Impacts of climate extremes will be exacerbated by increased population growth, environmental degradation, increased hazards exposure, and other socio-economic challenges. Knowledge of climate risks and human mobility is therefore a critical component of sustainable national and regional development.
The relationship between climate change and human mobility, including disaster displacement, is highly complex as environmental degradation is often aggravated by climate change, and can thus be an important push factor of displacement. This is specifically true for the Greater Horn of Africa where climate change has increasingly become another key driver of displacement within a complex context of poverty, conflict, violence and sometimes weak governance.
The IGAD region is already vulnerable to current climate variability in terms of extreme weather and climate events such as floods, droughts, high temperatures and heavy rains. The region is also vulnerable to long term climate change in terms of rapid and slow-onset hazards, including coastal erosion, sea-level rise, salinity intrusion and change in rainfall, wind and temperature patterns. For example, the 2008-2011 drought in the Greater Horn of Africa led to severe socio-economic distress that resulted in displacement internally and across borders, resource based conflicts, severe economic losses (e.g. in Djibouti equivalent to average 3.9% per year of GDP, over US$12.1 billion economic loss in Kenya, and loss equivalent to 7.5 percent of the Uganda’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010) as well as the loss of human lives. OCHA’s 2016 report on El Niño in East Africa indicated that as of June 2016, close to 24 million people in the region were facing critical and emergency food insecurity levels due to drought. According to the IOM Internal Displacement Monitoring Report (January – March 2016) IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix shows that El Niño driven drought contributed to a significant increase in displacement of people in several countries in the region in 2015 and 2016.-
In the IGAD region, migration and displacement is addressed through the Regional Migration Policy Framework (RMPF). The IGAD RMPF provides a comprehensive policy approach that addresses thematic, institutional and other challenges related to migration governance in the IGAD Region. The ultimate objective of the Regional Migration Policy Framework is to realize the well-being and protection of migrants including IDPs and refugees in all IGAD Member States and the realisation of the developmental potential of migration. In order to implement the RMPF, the IGAD Secretariat developed the Migration Action Plan (MAP) 2015-2020. The MAP comprises twelve strategic priorities with clusters of activities constructed around the key components and recommendations of the IGAD RMPF. Strategic Priority 10 of the MAP specifically focused on prevention of climate change – natural disaster induced displacement. IGAD has also established a Technical Working Group on Migration (TWGM) to provide a structured, systematic and sustainable platform for coordination amongst all IGAD Units, Programmes and Specialized Institutions with migration related functions in order to implement the IGAD Regional Policy Framework on Migration and its Migration Action Plan 2015-2020 at regional and Member State level. It is against this backdrop that IGAD seeks to explore the potential impact of climate change, disasters and environmental degradation on human mobility patterns and dynamics in the region as well as analyze existing policies and practices responding to those risks in order to identify gaps and propose improvements. The study will refer to the existing body of knowledge and relevant studies undertaken in the region with the aim of updating and improving what already exists.
The assessment study has two main objectives:
a)To assess existing policies and practices, at regional and national level, for managing displacement risks and responding to human mobility, including to disaster displacement across borders. This is aimed at providing suitable recommendations on how to strengthen the protection of displaced persons in the context of disasters linked to natural hazards and to prevent or reduce disaster displacement risks across the IGAD region.
b)To improve the understanding on linkages between climate variability and change and disaster displacement in the IGAD region by analysing climate change data from the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC) and linking it to disaster displacement statistics from IOM, IDMC, Platform on Disaster Displacement - and other relevant sources.
The specific objectives include to:
i.Assess regional/national population mobility projections that could arise from various regional climate change scenarios generated by ICPAC
ii.Synthesize the existing body of knowledge around climate change and disaster displacement, as well as already existing regional initiatives, policies and strategies in the Horn of Africa region in order to identify policy and legal gaps, related protection concerns and evidence gaps;
iii.Make recommendations on the implementation of the Nansen Initiative Protection Agenda in the Horn of Africa and its Member States.
- The consultant will design an appropriate methodology and work plan for the assignment. The approach should include, among others, the following:
-Proposed data collection instruments and methodology for data analysis (climate change and displacement data/projections)
-Schedules to review relevant documents
-Schedule of meetings with key stakeholders on migration, relevant bodies and institutions in each country and in the region
- The study methodology will be approved at an inception workshop with the relevant partners of the study
- S/he will closely liaise with a technical team from ICPAC, PDD and IOM who will ensure that the consultant adheres to the agreed TORs and deliver the study outputs.
4.Expected Outputs (deliverables)
i. Inception report detailing the methodology, tools to be used and work plan for the study including draft outline (structure) of the report, will be presented at an inception workshop ten days after commencement.
ii. Draft study report on linkages between climate change and disaster displacement for the RCP to be reviewed, by June 15.2017
iii. Final study report on linkages between climate change and disaster displacement for the RCP, by June 30.2017
iv. List of recommendations on how to implement the Protection Agenda in the IGAD region at Member State level by June 30.2017
v. A presentation of the study key findings and recommendations during the RCP.
The duration for the consultancy is 40 working days, spread over 2 months period, starting from the signing of the contract by all the parties.
The Consultant will work under the overall guidance of the IGAD Programme Manager for Health and Social Development and report to the IGAD Migration Project team, who will coordinate with the focal points from the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC).
The honorarium and other payments will be indicated in the contract.
8.Skills and other requirements of the consultant
Education: Advanced University Degree (MSc or PhD) in environment, climate change and displacements studies or equivalent.
Work Experience: A minimum of 8 years progressively responsible experience on issues related to sustainable development, regional knowledge on climate change and displacement, disaster displacement policy and initiatives.
Skills and Expertise: The candidate should have:
- Experience in collecting and analyzing demographic data and conducting qualitative interviews.
- Ability to collate and synthesize qualitative and quantitative data in an easily comprehensible and intelligible manner.
- Strong understanding of IGAD region and having worked in IGAD Member States.
- Strong understanding of the regional and international policy landscape, and experience in policy analysis.
- Track record of publications on migration, displacement, environment or climate change or all three areas is an asset.
Languages: The candidate for this assignment needs to be fluent in English and have excellent drafting skills. French will be an added value.
9.Duration: May-June, 2017