Wednesday, Jan 19, 2022

 Feb. 5-6. 2020, (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia): IGAD region exports only 50% and less than 10% of live animals and meat respectively to huge Middle East and North African (MENA) countries’ annual demand, an indication of a big potential to exploit if appropriate enhancement measures are taken.  IGAD Center for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD) in collaboration with FAO established in 2016 an inter-regional technical committee of Chief Veterinary Officers (CVO) of IGAD exporting and MENA importing countries to frequently discuss and review the impediments to exports; enhance trust and transparency and propose solutions. Prior meetings were held in 2016, 2017 and 2018.

This workshop was organized by ICPALD in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on 5-6th February 2020 and was officially opened by Hon Dr. Gebregziabher Gebreyohannes, State Minister of Livestock; Ministry of Agriculture, Ethiopia. He emphasized on the importance for IGAD countries to enhance animal disease surveillance, vaccination and disease control as one way of improving compliance with sanitary requirements to increase their market share to MENA countries. In this regard, IGAD member states have signed MOUs on crossborder coordination and collaboration on animal health and sanitary measures, developed Standard methods and procedures (SMP) & Standard operating procedures (SOP) for export quarantines and trained quarantine staff to promote compliance with SPS measure of importing countries. Director of ICPALD, Dr. Solomon Munyua and FAO Sub-regional Coordinator, Dr. David Phiri made welcome remarks. Twenty three (23) participants who included CVOs and officers in-charge of quarantine facilities from Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Jordan and CVOs or their representatives from South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Ethiopia and the Laboratory Manager, Deputy Technical Manager, Djibouti Regional Quarantine attended. After discussing the status of export and compliance from IGAD countries and collaborations, trust and transparency situations on both sides the following recommendations made.

The recommendations

1. The exporters from IGAD and importers from MENA countries should be considered in the fifth IGAD-MENA inter-regional technical meeting to learn more from the traders and strengthen linkages and technical support from the regulatory bodies of both regions
2. Exporting IGAD countries should harmonize laboratory test kits and reagents with MENA importing countries to minimize detection of false sero-positives and avoid consignment rejections
3. IGAD CVOs and technical staff should inform their exporters of any change in import requirements as received from MENA counterparts to mitigate non- compliance with sanitary measures-

4. Continue supporting the established IGAD-MENA technical committee to facilitate open communication, enhance trust and transparency to promote trade between the two regions

5. Facilitate training for trade agents in exporting countries on basic requirements including proper documentation


ICPALD expresses its appreciation to FAO sub–regional office of Eastern Africa (SFE) for funding this activity.


4-6th December 2019 (Lodwar, Turkana country, Kenya): IGAD center for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD) convened a bilateral crossborder planning meeting between Kenya and Uganda from 4- 6th December 2019 in Lodwar, Turkana County, Kenya to develop a harmonized transboundary animal diseases surveillance and vaccination calendar for 2020 between Kenya and Uganda . The one-day meeting focused on planning of harmonizing/ synchronizing prevention and control TADs in the shared crossborder areas of Karamoja cluster that covers West Pokot and Turkana counties in Kenya and nine districts in Karamoja region of Uganda. The meeting was attended by twenty three participant drawn from Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (National and districts), Uganda and National/ County governments (Kenya), VSF-Germany- Kenya, Mercy Corps- Uganda and ICPALD.

The key actions conducted and recommended

  1. A six month harmonized surveillance and vaccination calendar against common TADs was developed between West Pokot county & Amudat district and between Turkana county and Kaabong, Kotido and Moroto districts
  2. December 5th 2019 at Lokiriama ward, Loima sub-county, Turkana County, Kenya: Lomeyan Ewoi, Lokiriama ward administrator was delegated by Agriculture CEC to launch the exercise at the crossborder area with Uganda. Many pastoralists presented and get vaccinated their livestock against Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) and Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR). Additionally, animals were treated against various ailments and dewormed alongside use of ectopour to control external parasites including ticks,
  3. December 6th 2019 at Rupa Sub-County, Moroto district, Uganda: Vaccination against LSD and PPR was launched by Edward Echo on behalf of the Chief Administrative Officer, Moroto district and animals vaccinated
  4. Similar and regular coordinated cross border vaccination will be advocated  on both sides as per the agreed calendar

ICPALD expresses appreciation to FAO for providing financial support



The entire population of donkeys in this region is at a risk due to donkey hide trade driven by burgeoning demand from China. Kenya is the most affected in Africa particularly with licensing of four slaughter houses in Mogotio, Baringo County, Naivasha, Nakuru County, Nakwaalele Turkana County and Kithyoko, Machakos County. A 2019 study report by the Kenya Agriculture and Research Organization (KALRO) showed that over 350,000 donkeys were slaughtered in less than three years and warned that donkeys will become effectively extinct in Kenya by 2023. High demand for donkey skins has catalyzed theft, illegal slaughter and cross-border smuggling of donkeys into Kenya for slaughter thus threatening regional harmony, spread of diseases, a native donkey genetic resource and the livelihoods of communities that depend on them for service and income.

 Brooke East Africa and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) devoted a special conference to review and debate the current status, socio-economic and trade impact of donkeys in Eastern Africa. The regional conference was held in Laico Regency hotel, Nairobi, Kenya from 26th to 27th November 2019. It was attended by 201 participants drawn from 13 countries including Kenya, Tanzania, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Niger, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, Zimbabwe, China and UK. Included too were representatives of donkey owning communities and community groups, national and local governments and government agencies, religious groups, animal welfare/ humanitarian and conservation organizations, media, academia, owners of slaughterhouses and organizations intervening on donkey welfare. The following resolutions were made:


  1. Collaborations and Partnerships: Given the porous nature of borders in the region, governments in the region should collaborate to find sustainable solutions including increasing investments in donkey breeding programmes as a possible long-term plan to stem the decline in donkey population to sustain the supply intended for slaughter.
  2. Stemming the rapid decline in donkey numbers: National and local governments of Kenya and Tanzania are urged to consider enacting legislation to ban all trade in donkey skins, meat and associated products to allow donkey population to recover from the steep decline since the slaughter begun.
  3. Community level support structures: It is proposed that the County (Kenya) and Regional (Tanzania) Veterinary Services from local technical committees should initiate local level policies that will operationalize the halt/ ban of donkey slaughter. In Kenya, it is suggested that the team works through intergovernmental structures such as sector working groups, County Executive CECMs caucus and Joint Agriculture sector steering committee (JASSCOM).
  4. Control of Cross Border Smuggling: It is suggested that the governments in the region and especially Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia strengthen security along their borders to curb cross border smuggling of donkeys as they pose serious risk of transmitting zoonotic diseases across countries.
  5. Data and Information: The proponents of the halting of the trade in donkey and donkey products undertake to collaborate to generate quality and timely data and information on the impact of donkey trade to inform decision making at local, national and regional levels.
  6. Global policy makers: The meeting urged regional, continental and global policy makers and advocates to lobby counterparts in the region and in countries affected by the trade to push for imposition of sanctions to mitigate the negative impacts of donkey skin trade.
  7. Commonality of purpose: It was proposed that security agents and communities collaborate in stemming out the rampant theft of donkeys and communities to implement initiatives to protect their animals while discouraging and reporting illegal donkey trade business.
  8. Community Education: It was agreed that all stakeholders will rigorously promote community awareness on donkey welfare.


IGAD Center for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD), through financial support of BORESHA project being implemented by Danish Refugee Council with funds from the EU- Trust financed the development of a draft information sharing protocol on cross-border animal health and sanitary measures between Ethiopia and Kenya. This was a follow up to operationalize the signed cross border MoU between the two countries.

Dr. Obadiah Njagi, the Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) of Kenya and OIE delegate, opened the three days validation workshop. He reminded participants of how important it is to share real time information on crossborder disease incidences. This helps a neighbor country to adequately prepare to prevent an entry of a transboundary animal disease in the event of an outbreak in crossborder area. Otherwise, if the OIE notifiable disease reporting pathway is followed, information about a disease outbreak in a neighboring country may be received after six months from the time of the outbreak. In such a case, the disease will have spread already or contained. Therefore, real time information sharing on animal health and sanitary measures between our two countries (Ethiopia and Kenya) is very important to put in place effective prevention and control measures of TADs to ensure continuous crossborder trade and livestock exports from the IGAD region. Welcome remarks were made by Dr. Wamalwa Kinyanjui on behalf of the Director of ICPALD, Nicoletta Buono made welcome remarks on behalf of BORESHA project and Dr Sehelu Mulu, on behalf of the CVO, Ethiopia. Finally the meeting made the following recommendations:

  1. Create more awareness about the MOU and the information sharing Protocol at all levels (National and County) emphasizing value of cross border animal health information sharing in disease prevention and control,
  2. ICPALD to facilitate the signing of the animal health information sharing Protocol by the two CVOs and the nomination of county Director of veterinary services (CDVS) and Zonal veterinary officers as coordinators for information sharing protocol per each cross-border,
  3. Joint steering committee and multi-disciplinary technical committee (JSC/ MTC ) and ICPALD should mobilize financial resources from potential development partners and the respective governments to enhance cross-border information sharing,
  4. CDVS/ Zonal/ Woreda animal health officers to undertake mapping of infrastructure capacity (human, physical) along the common border in terms of current status, functionality and gaps to inform any intended support,
  5. ICPALD to promote documentation of lessons and processes during implementation of the animal health information sharing Protocol for replication in other IGAD crossborder areas.

ICPALD expresses its appreciation to BORESHA project with financial support from the EU-Trust fund for financing this activity.


IGAD Center for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD) with financial support from European Union, Technical Cooperation Fund (EU-TCF) organized two days meeting regional validation workshop on findings of social and economic costs of livestock rustling in the region, Entebbe, Uganda on 2-3rd October, 2019 to enrich and validate  five country studies and a synthesized regional report on livestock rustling.. This was followed by a one-day meeting of Ministers responsible for livestock resources on 4th October, 2019 who reviewed and adopted recommendations of the technical workshop of high level experts and action points on social and economic costs of livestock rustling. This will help in dissemination of the findings, further buy-in on the recommendations and strengthen the existing approaches on curbing this deadliest menace at national and local levels. The technical and Ministerial meetings held back to back were attended by 35 and 40 participants respectively from all IGAD Member States. Participants included Ministers, representative of Ministers, members of IGAD Committee of Ambassadors, Permanent/Undersecretaries, Ministries of Interior, CVOs, technical staff from Departments of Livestock Production, ICPALD and Pastoral Associations.

Hon. Joy Kabatsi, state Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Uganda, officially opened the meeting. She reminded the participants that livestock rustling is predominantly practiced in Karamoja sub-region where livestock is an important livelihood activity and the government through the disarmament process was able to manage and reduce incidents of rustling. Dr. Solomon Munyua, ICPALD Director; Representative of Minister, Kenya, representative of Minister, Somalia, Representative of Minister, Sudan, Minister of Livestock and Fisheries, South Sudan, Representative of Minister, Ethiopia made welcome remarks.

The two meetings achieved the following:

  • The technical high-level expert meeting enriched and validated the studies and developed some recommendations with action points to help in curbing rustling at national and regional levels,
  • The Ministers have adopted the recommendations and action points of the technical workshop of high-level expert meeting

 Recommendations of the technical meeting centered around fostering and building peace among pastoral communities, improve delivery of social services, strengthen joint border initiatives, strengthen security mechanisms, establish and diversify complimentary   livelihoods, eliminate illicit livestock trade and support and strengthening the role of civil society actors in curbing livestock rustling.

 The ministerial meeting committed to:

  1. Galvanize political will at the highest level of member states in support of the recommendations of the technical experts meeting on social and economic costs of livestock rustling in the region held in Entebbe, Uganda, 2nd to the 3rd, of October, 2019.
  2. Champion, convene and coordinate the efforts of all relevant public and private sector stakeholders in the implementation of the actionable recommendations of the aforementioned technical expert meeting
  3. Support the mobilization of the required technical and financial resources within member states and in conjunction with IGAD Secretariat, from development partners to finance the actionable activities within the recommendations as outlined in the roadmap to curb livestock rustling
  4. Support efforts of ICPALD to be allocated at least 50% of its budget from member states contributions as per the decision of the 45th session of the IGAD Council of Ministers held in July 2012, in order for ICPALD to effectively deliver on its core functions as articulated in the ICPALD protocol.
  5. Advocate for increased national budgetary allocations towards accelerated development of the livestock sector by driving the transformation and realization of the commercialization of this sector by member states

 ICPALD/IGAD expresses appreciation to EU-TCF project for funding this activity.

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