Monday, Apr 23, 2018

The Peace and Security Division is mandated to deal with issues related to Peace and Security and Humanitarian Affairs. The division has three main programme components, namely:

  • Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution (CPMR),
  • Political Affairs, and
  • Humanitarian Affairs.

The Division also coordinates the activities of two IGAD institutions based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, IGAD Capacity Building Programme Against Terrorism (ICPAT) and Early Warning and Early Response Mechanism secretariat (CEWARN).

The sector has the overall objective of ensuring that there is security in the Sub-region and the humanitarian sufferings of the Sub-region is addressed. The devastating conflicts and natural disasters in the IGAD Sub-region justify the pursuit of these goals. The IGAD Sub-region suffers from natural disasters and conflicts. As a result refugees and displaced persons are found in all member states. Most of the projects initiated by the Political and Humanitarian Affairs Sector are under formulation, whereas a number of peace initiatives are being undertaken.

The Sectors's long term objectives are: to ensure that peace and stability prevail in the sub-region so that economic development can take place; and contribute towards alleviation and mitigation of humanitarian crisis through long term strategies and response to acute crises. This requires development of conflict, prevention, management and resolution tools and use of early warning and early response mechanism to prevent conflicts as well as capacity building in these areas. It also requires development of a capacity to be better prepared to respond to humanitarian crises and mitigate human sufferings.


Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution

The Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution programme deals with security and political issues in the Peace and Security Division. The section is involved in actvities and programmes in Post-Agreement follow up of Peace initiatives of both Sudan and Somalia conflicts, development of counter -terrorism strategy, Coordination of the Eastern Africa Standby Brigade (EASBRIG), Small Arms and Light Weapons, Landmines, Civil Society, Inter-parliamentary Union of IGAD Member States and Conflict Early Warning and Early Response Unit.

The programme components include:

(1) Conflict Resolution

  • Sudan Peace Process
  • Somalia Peace Process
  • Archiving the Somalia Peace Process

(2) Conflict Management

  • Development of Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution Strategy in the IGAD region
  • Coordination of the East African Standby Brigade (EASBRIG)
  • Control of Illicit Small arms and light weapons in the IGAD region
  • Coordination of the IGAD Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU-IGAD)
  • The Assembly of the IGAD-NGO/CSO Forum

(3) Conflict Prevention

  • Conflict Early Warning and Response Mechanism (CEWARN)

Humanitarian Affairs

The humanitarian affairs section has the following components:

1. Disaster Risk Management Programme

  • Enhancing DRM Capability Through Training
  • Resources mobilization for implementation of the DRM
  • DRM as component of the Regional Food Security and Risk Management Programme (REFORM)
  • Establishing Regional Disaster (Emergency) Fund
  • The Risk Management of Bird Flue/Avian Influenza

2. Alleviation and Mitigation of Humanitarian Crises

  • Refugees, Returnees and IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons)

 

 

The Division of Economic Cooperation and Social Development is responsible for the overall co-ordination of regional development co-operation in the areas of trade, industry, tourism, transport infrastructure and communication as well as issues of social development focusing on education, health, labour, migration, and youth affairs among others. The Division also liaises with other organisations, agencies and co-operating partners, on regional, continental, and international matters.

In accordance with the Agreement Establishing IGAD, IGAD Secretariat is mandated to promote programmes aimed at realizing the objectives of COMESA and the African Union. Hence World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations are carried out under these processes and framework arrangements. The Division continues to play its liaison and collaborative role on all regional economic co-operation and integration endeavours within the IGAD region, and at continental level under the auspices of the AU/AEC/REC's framework.

The division has three programme areas namely:

  1. Trade, Industry & Tourism
  2. Transport and Communications
  3. Health and Social Development

The underlying principle in promoting regional economic integration endeavours and pursuing policy harmonisation programmes by IGAD Secretariat is based on promotion and realisation of the African Economic Community among IGAD member states as stated in the aims and objectives of the Agreement Establishing IGAD.


Trade, Industry & Tourism

1. Study on Harmonization of Investment Code in the IGAD Region

The two broad objectives of the study on harmonization of investment code in IGAD region are to assist IGAD member states to attract both domestic and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), and to enhance prospects for economic cooperation and integration in the Region. The study contributes to the development and harmonization of policies with impact on creation of economic and customs union.

2. IGAD Business Forum (IBF)

The IBF is expected to play a leading role in trade facilitation, advocacy and lobbying with a view to promoting the objectives of harmonization of policies with regard to trade, customs and transport facilitation; creation of an enabling environment for foreign, cross-border and domestic trade investment; and promotion of free movement of goods and services in the IGAD region.

3. Tourism Promotion Initiative in IGAD Region

The need for tourism development in the IGAD region with a view to promoting regional economic cooperation and integration cannot be over-emphasized. The region has the required flora and fauna that could be developed to propel the region to a self - reliance and sustainable development. Currently, earnings from this sector in form of the much needed foreign exchange is substantial. It is in consideration of the importance of this sector, that IGAD Secretariat intends to launch the promotion of IGAD Tourism Initiative. As a way forward, IGAD shall have to develop an IGAD Master Plan to guide its intervention in tourism promotion. Therefore, consultations have been initiated with the NEPAD Secretariat with a view to mobilizing resources to develop a Tourism Sector Master Plan for the IGAD Region.

Other components of this programme include:

(4) Industry Sector

(5) World Trade Organisation Negotiations (WTO)

(6) Cooperation with Development Partners

  • African Uniion Commision (AU)
  • Rationalisation of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs)
  • Cooperation with NEPAD
  • Coopeartion with Economic Commission for Africa
  • ACP-EU/EPA's Negotiations

Transport and Communications

The transport and communications programme has the folowing components:

1. Gradual Harmonisation of Transport and Communications Policies

  • A transport and communications strategy
  • A priority investment plan and a criteria for prioritization of individual projects
  • Designing and setting up a management information system
  • Capacity building

2. Development of Physical Infrastructure to Enhance Regional Economic Integration

  • Mombasa/Nairobi/Addis Ababa Road Corridor Development
  • Djibouti-Ethiopia Railway Development
  • Up-Grading of Dobi-Galafi Road
  • Djibouti-Addis Corrodor Observatory Committee

3. Regional ICT Support Programme

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Support Programme under the EU funding for Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) covers four regional integration organisations, namely; COMESA, EAC, IOC and IGAD.

The purpose of the programme is to achieve a reduction in the digital divide by removing some of the constraints to the use of information and communications technologies, including those to do with the regulatory environment, poor communications infrastructures, and poor access to information useful to entrepreneurs, and low skills levels.

The main objective of the ICT support programme is to contribute to the overall objectives of the region's integration process, as defined in the ESA RSP and RIP, by providing an effective and efficiently functioning ICT environment whose impact is to reduce the costs of doing business, provide new opportunities for economic activities to take place, especially in the services sectors, and improve the prospects for economic growth and the reduction of poverty. The programme has three major components as follows:

  • The development, and monitoring of implementation, of ICT policy guidelines and strategies, and monitoring of e-readiness status.
  • High-speed Internet Connectivity provided to certain key regional Stakeholders to further reduce costs of doing business in the region; migration to ASYCUDA++ in selected countries.
  • Improved and more efficient access to economic, commercial and policy information of practical use, and the establishment of incubator projects to demonstrate the viability of the Internet, including e-commerce and Improved capacity for entrepreneurs to exploit ICT opportunities and e-commerce techniques.

Health and Social Development

 

The programme of Health and Social Development was established in 2005 following the decision of the 24th session of IGAD Council of Ministers. While social issues cover a broader sector and include health, education, employment, housing, migration, culture, population and sports, the aims and objectives of the section are:

  1. to promote and facilitate common social policies among member-states in the areas of health, education and employment.
  2. to promote the development of common strategies to combat major diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.
  3. to promote cooperation and exchange of best practices and coordination with a view to harmonizing and integrating progressively the educational policy and systems at regional level.
  4. to strengthen the capacities of member states to manage migration flow for greater policy coherence at national and intra-regional levels.

The programme has the following components:

(1) Health

IGAD/World Bank Initiative on HIV/AIDS in the Horn of Africa

  • Regional Mappping Exercise
  • IGAD Health website

Sub-regional Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Framework Strategy in Collaboration with African Union and UNFPA

(2) Education - Cooperation Agreement with UNESCO

(3) Migration Policy Dialogue

(4) Collaboration Between IGAD and AU, IOM, UNFPA, and WHO

 

 

The economies of the countries of the IGAD region (with the exception of Djibouti) are agriculture based with agriculture contributing over 30% to the total GDP. Over 80% of the population are rural and depend on smallholder agriculture for their livelihood and agriculture is considered not only as the main source of food, but also as the engine of growth for these economies. IGAD's strategy is to support national agricultural policies in a manner that promotes cooperation among the member states for mutual benefit, while ensuring that the policies are based on rational use of natural resources and encompass sound environmental management in order to achieve sustainable development.

The agriculture and environment priority sector has four thrusts:

  1. agricultural development and food security,
  2. natural resources and energy,
  3. environment protection, and
  4. dryland agricultural research and technology.

The Division also coordinates the programme activities of the IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre (ICPAC) based in Nairobi Kenya. The main objective of ICPAC as a specialized centre is to provide climate information, prediction products and services, for early warning, and related applications to reduce climate related risks for disaster management, environment management and poverty reduction in support of Sustainable Development efforts of the member countries.

The Division works closely with partners such as the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), African Development Bank (ADB), United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Global Mechanism (GM), United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS), New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), ALive (World Bank). The Division actively participates in the negotiations for the 10 th EDF future funding of its projects and programmes.

 


Agriculture, Livestock and Food Security

 

IGAD activities in the Agriculture, Livestock and Food Security Programme Area are based on the Regional Food Security Strategy drawn up for the period 2005 - 2008. The Strategy envisages regional actions for boosting food production, improving marketing and providing safety nets for vulnerable populations.

The programme has the following components:

(1) Boosting Agriculture, Livestock and Fish Production

  • IGAD Livestock Policy Initiative Project
  • Fertiliser and Inputs Programme
  • Regional Food Security Programme for Eastern and Southern Africa

(2) Improving the Efficiency of Agricultural and Food Marketing

  • Livestock Marketing Information System

Natural Resources Management

The IGAD region is endowed with varied ecosystems that are rich in fauna, flora, productive forests, grasslands, mountains, rivers and lakes that should be developed to sustain the populations. Natural resources management endeavours to centralise human interest and economic utilization of resources based on integrating production systems. This would be through promoting and popularizing alternative systems of subsistence, to ensure sustainable agriculture, food security, household energy needs and improvement of the quality of life of the people. Various approaches, techniques and knowledge for conservation and use of natural resource exist and are confined within national boundaries. The sector intends to identify such opportunities and promote their exchange and use for enjoyment of the present and future generation.

The programme has three components:

(1) Rational Utilization of Trans-Boundary Natural Resources

  • Community-based Natural Resources Management

(2) Promoting the Use of Renewable Energy Resources

  • Renewable Energy Development

(3) Promoting Rational Management of Fresh Water Resources

  • Strengthening Hydrological and Meteorological Networks Hydrological cycles observation system (IGAD-HYCOS)
  • IGAD/OSS programme on assessment and mapping of surface and ground waters in the region

Environment Protection

IGAD region faces a myriad of sustainable development and environmental challenges of which sustainable management of environmental resources is one of them. Poverty, rapid population growth, inappropriate land use and land tenure systems (policies) and poor exploitation of energy resources are some of the major problems that are the root causes for the deterioration of the natural capital base of the region. This exacerbated by recurrent drought and other natural and man-made disasters, results in intensified poverty and under-development, which in turn, accelerates the degradation of the environmental resources, thereby closing the vicious circle. Nevertheless, the IGAD region is endowed with substantial environmental resources that if properly protected and managed, the degraded environmental resources would regain their past productivity within a short time. The environmental sustainability can be achieved through awareness creation, development and strengthening of appropriate environmental policies and strategies, by putting in place relevant legislative and regulatory frameworks, including ratification of regional and global conventions.

The programme has the following components:

(1) Environmental Assessment

  • Revision of the IGAD Environment Strategy
  • Replacement of Current Meteosat Receiving Stations
  • African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable Development (AMESD) Project
  • IGAD Environment Outlook Process

(2) Cooperation in Addressing Environmental Challenges

  • Promoting Environmental Education and Training
  • Strengthening Environmental Pollution Control
  • Sustainable Management of Trans-boundary Natural Resources and Biodiversity through Building Capacity in Environment Assessment and Monitoring
  • Environmental Component of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)

(3) Multilateral Environmental Agreements and Conventions

  • Implementation of IGAD Sub-regional Action Programme (IGAD-SRAP) in the context of the UNCCD
    1. Support to development and implementation of SRAP and NAPs Projects
    2. Implementation of the Community Exchange and Training Project (CETP)
    3. A Partnership Initiative for Sustainable Land Management in IGAD Sub-region

Dryland Agricultural Research and Technology

More than half of the IGAD region is classified as Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL). The severe as well as recurrent droughts that hit the region hamper agricultural production, particularly in the ASALs. Furthermore, these areas are characterised by limited income opportunities and the majority of the people are chronically food insecure. The technologies developed for high rainfall lands are not the most suitable to be used in the ASALs, so their impact on productivity is limited and are not able to close the food gap of these perennially deficit zones. Hence, arises the need for setting up within IGAD a permanent programme for Dryland Agricultural Research and Technology.

The overall objective of the programme is to enhance food security in the dryer parts of the IGAD region through cooperation, integration and exchange of technologies and information concerning promotion of production in the ASALS. Specifically the programme aims:

  • To build capacity for ASALs Agricultural research and extension;
  • To improve exchange of dryland technology and technology transfer;
  • T o strengthen both public and private research centres and extension services that can promote the production of the desired crop varieties;
  • to promote linkages among regional dryland research institutions and with international research institutions that work on dryland crops;
  • To contribute in establishing Drylands research centres of excellence

The programme has the following components:

(1) Promoting Sustainable Production of Drought Tolerant High Yielding Crop Varieties through Research and Extension

(2) Water Harvesting Pilot Project in the IGAD Region

 

The History

IGAD  was  created  in  1996  to  supersede  the  Intergovernmental  Authority  on  Drought  and Development(IGADD),  which  was  founded  in  1986.  This followed the recurring and severe drought and other natural disasters between 1974 and 1984 that caused widespread famine, ecological degradation and economic hardship in the Eastern Africa region. Although individual countries made substantial efforts to cope with the situation and received  generous  support  from the  international  community,  the  magnitude  and  extent  of  the  problem argued strongly for a regional approach to supplement national efforts.

In 1983 and 1984, six countries in the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia,Sudan and Uganda) took action through the United Nations to establish an intergovernmental body to collectively combat drought and desertification in the region.  The Assembly of Heads of State and Government met in January 1986 to sign the agreement that officially launched IGADD with headquarters in Djibouti. The State of Eritrea became the seventh member after attaining independence in 1993 and South Sudan joined in 2011.

In April 1995 in Addis Ababa, the Assembly of Heads of State and Government made a declaration to revitalize IGADD and expand cooperation among Member States. On 21st March 1996 in Nairobi, the Assembly signed “Letter of Instrument to amend the IGADD Charter” establishing the revitalized regional organization with a new name, “Intergovernmental Authority on Development”. IGAD with expanded areas of regional cooperation and a new organizational structure was launched during the Summit of the Heads of State and Government on 25th November 1996 in Djibouti.

The Vision

To be the premier regional organization for achieving peace, prosperity and regional integration in the IGAD region

The Mission

To assist and complement the efforts of the Member States through increased cooperation to achieve:

  • Food security and environmental protection;
  • Promotion and maintenance of peace and security and humanitarian affairs; and
  • Economic cooperation and integration.

The Objectives

Working with the Member States and the development partners to:

  • Promote joint development strategies and gradually harmonize macro-economic policies and programmes in the social, technological and scientific fields;
  • Harmonize policies with regard to trade, customs, transport, communications, agriculture, and natural resources, and promote free movement of goods, services, and people within the region;
  • Create an enabling environment for foreign, cross-border and domestic trade and investment;
  • Achieve regional food security, as well as encourage and assist efforts to collectively combat drought and other natural and man-made disasters and their natural consequences;
  • Initiate and promote programmes and projects to achieve regional food security and sustainable development of natural resources and environmental protection;
  • Develop and improve a coordinated and complementary infrastructure, in the areas of  transport, telecommunications and energy in the region;
  • Promote peace and stability, as well as create mechanisms for the prevention, management and resolution of inter-State and intra-State conflicts in the region through dialogue;
  • Mobilize resources for the implementation of  emergency, short-term, medium-term and long-term programmes within the framework of  regional cooperation;
  • Facilitate, promote and strengthen cooperation in research development and application in science and technology; and
  •  Promote and realize the objectives of the African Economic Community.

Policy Organs

IGAD is comprised of four hierarchical policy organs:

1. THE ASSEMBLY OF HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT; The Summit is the supreme policy making organ of the Authority. The Summit determines the objectives, guidelines and programmes for IGAD and ordinarily meets once a year. A Chairman is elected from among the Member States on a rotational basis.

2. THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS; The Executive Council is composed of the Ministers for Foreign Affairs and one other Focal Minister designated by each Member State. The Council formulates policy, approves the work programme and annual budget of the Secretariat.

3. THE COMMITTEE OF AMBASSADORS is comprised of Ambassadors or Plenipotentiaries accredited to the country of IGAD Headquarters, i.e. Djibouti. The Committee convenes as often as the need arises to advise and guide the Executive Secretary.

4. THE SECRETARIAT is headed by an Executive Secretary appointed by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government for a term of four years renewable once. The Secretariat assists Member States in formulating regional projects in the priority areas, facilitates the coordination and harmonization of development policies, mobilizes resources to implement the projects and programmes approved by the Council and reinforces national infrastructures necessary for implementing regional projects and policies. 

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